Hopi Indians

The Hopi tribe of south Western Arizona were at one time considered a subgroup of the Pueblos.

However, they spoke a different language.

Their name means peaceful ones and were an agricultural people growing a variety of foods.

These included Maize, Corn,Beans,Squash,cotton and Sunflower .

They were mainly a peaceful people but did have disputes with the Navajo and the Spanish .

Contact with the Spanish was ant a good one as they sent missionaries to convert them to Christianity .

This did not work well for they did not fully accept Christianity and still held on to their traditional

Traditional spiritual ways and practices.

These traditional beliefs are still practiced today and include ceremonies called Kivas.

When they hold these ceremonies, they wear masks and costumes to impersonate Kachinas.

This belief system probably began around 1100AD. Which included rock art that can be found all over Arizona and the South West U.S.

They have left evidence of abandoned villages going back to the 12th century .

A lot of these villages were however abandoned around this time because of severe drought.

There houses were constructed out of clay and straw then backed into bricks and stone.

Each house or dwelling would be occupied with one family like modern apartments or flats .

In 1848 the U.S government came to an agreement with the Spanish and signed a treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

This change of jurisdiction and land control to the U.S meant that the Hopi were now under U.S.

Control and so this gave the U.S a free hand in taking Hopi lands.

So began the force removal on to a reservation in the Black Mesa where they still live today.

Again, the Hopi people then endured all the same injustices as all other Native tribes across the U.S.

To day the Hopi reservation occupies 1.5 million acres the also share with some Pueblos.

They still practice their traditional ways like their Kachina dances.

Some of these are open to the public .However photography, sketching or sound  recording is  prohibited.

The are well know for their fine weaving ,artwork, pottery and Kachina dolls.

Their population is estimated at around 20000 people today.